Date of publication: 2017-07-09 09:56
The primary purpose of food packaging must continue to be maintaining the safety, wholesomeness, and quality of food. The impact of packaging waste on the environment can be minimized by prudently selecting materials, following EPA guidelines, and reviewing expectations of packaging in terms of environmental impact. Knowledgeable efforts by industry, government, and consumers will promote continued improvement, and an understanding of the functional characteristics of packaging will prevent much of the well-intentioned but ill-advised solutions that do not adequately account for both preconsumer and postconsumer packaging factors.
EPA's Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) promote the purchase of products made with recycled materials. EPA designates products that can be made with recovered materials and recommends practices for buying these products. After EPA designates a product, procuring agencies are required to purchase the product with the highest recovered material content level possible. EPA has selected more than 65 recycled content products under the CPG program and proposed several additional products.
Janna G. Koppe , PhD, Professor Emeritus of Neonatology, Emma Children’s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Loenersloot, the Netherlands
This course covers the classification, structure and bonding of organic compounds, naming using IUPAC, common and trade names of many industrial chemicals, factors affecting boiling point and solubility, and theory of extractions. Stereochemistry, the preparations and reactions of alkanes, alkenes, alkyl halides, aromatic compounds and alcohols, and structure determination using IR and NMR spectroscopy will also be examined. Laboratory exercises include the isolation and identification of natural products, qualitative tests for the identification of functional groups, preparation of samples for infrared analysis, and qualitative analysis by gas chromatography. Prerequisites: CHEM 6676
Polyethylene naphthalate . PEN is a condensation polymer of dimethyl naphthalene dicarboxylate and ethylene glycol. It is a relatively new member of the polyester family with excellent performance because of its high glass transition temperature. PEN's barrier properties for carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor are superior to those of PETE, and PEN provides better performance at high temperatures, allowing hot refills, rewashing, and reuse. However, PEN costs 8 to 9 times more than PETE. Because PEN provides protection against transfer of flavors and odors, it is well suited for manufacturing bottles for beverages such as beer.
Designed to encourage recycling and reduce litter, bottle bills appear to be making a positive impact: Litter surveys have shown a reduction in total roadside and beverage container litter in states with bottle bills (Container Recycling Inst. 7556b). The 66 states that have bottle bills are California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Vermont (Container Recycling Inst. 7556a). Some of these states are attempting to expand bottle bill programs while others are reviewing their existing programs.
Public opposition to siting of incinerators and landfills for waste disposal is described by the acronyms NIMBY (not in my backyard), NIMED (not in my election district), and NIMTO (not in my term of office). The siting problem is therefore not only an issue of technical significance but also economic, social, and political. Effective public involvement is a significant component of a comprehensive siting strategy.
The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines traceability as "the ability to follow the movement of a food through specified stage(s) of production, processing and distribution" (Codex Alimentarius Commission 7559). Traceability has 8 objectives: to improve supply management, to facilitate trace-back for food safety and quality purposes, and to differentiate and market foods with subtle or undetectable quality attributes (Golan and others 7559). Food manufacturing companies incorporate unique codes onto the package labels of their products this allows them to track their products throughout the distribution process. Codes are available in various formats (for example, printed barcodes or electronic radio frequency identification [RFID]) and can be read manually and/or by machine.
Aluminum . Commonly used to make cans, foil, and laminated paper or plastic packaging, aluminum is a lightweight, silvery white metal derived from bauxite ore, where it exists in combination with oxygen as alumina. Magnesium and manganese are often added to aluminum to improve its strength properties (Page and others 7558). Unlike many metals, aluminum is highly resistant to most forms of corrosion its natural coating of aluminum oxide provides a highly effective barrier to the effects of air, temperature, moisture, and chemical attack.
Recycling diverts materials from the waste stream to material recovery. Unlike reuse, which involves using a returned product in its original form, recycling involves reprocessing material into new products. A typical recycling program entails collection, sorting and processing, manufacturing, and sale of recycled materials and products. To make recycling economically feasible, recycled products and materials must have a market.