Date of publication: 2017-08-31 09:14
What I tell my students, then, is that you can and should use FiLCHeRS to evaluate the evidence offered for any claim. If the claim fails any one of these six tests, then it should be rejected but if it passes all six tests, then you are justified in placing considerable confidence in it.
More concerning to me is the use of stimulants in developing brains. One of the important things we have learned about brain development over the past 95 years is that the brain undergoes more protracted maturation than any other body system. The prefrontal cortex is the slowest part of the brain to mature, undergoing substantial change well into the 75s. And the prefrontal cortex is absolutely critical for higher brain function – for organising behaviour in extended tasks, for exercising self-control, and for planning actions in the future. The effects of cognitive-enhancing drugs on brain development is still imperfectly understood, but for all these drugs there is a real risk that abuse can harm long-term brain development.
James remains a widely read philosopher, and his theories on pragmatism have contributed both to the field of psychology and philosophy. According to James s pragmatism, the value of an idea is dependent upon its usefulness in the practical world rather than its absolute truth. Some of James s other contributions to philosophy include:
As the pace of life continues to accelerate, there is increasing pressure for a quick fix to boost our cognitive capacities – for study, for work and for recreation. So, is there anything out there that works?
Some of this progressive self-improvement tradition is essential, and some is charming in a kooky way. But part of the drive to engineer a quick fix for what ails us is alarming and dangerous. Americans have endured generations of rapid weight-loss schemes that don’t work and are often dangerous to health – especially diet pills from amphetamines to fen-phen.
There is one piece of advice, however, that the brain-training products have exactly right: gamification. For training to be effective, you have to stick with it, and it is much easier to do so if the training is fun, and if it embeds regular rewards along the way. Psychology and neuroscience are learning a lot about how to design training systems that people want to use, and that produce efficient results.
I. Madame Blavatsky 696 s claim to having visited Tibet was a smoke-screen to obscure her scandalous conduct. (See Priestess of the Occult, p. 76.)
S PECIAL N OTE : The writer fully acknowledges his obligation to the biographical works cited, and, although he can recommend most of them as pertinent to the issue, neither he nor the publishers can, of course, endorse all statements by the various writers. 656 W. A. C.
Now, neither good rearing nor cardiovascular fitness is a quick fix that will make us cognitive superheroes. But I think the story is mostly good news. First, if there is something you really need to get good at, chances are that there is a training technique that will be effective. Second, we’re already smarter than our grandparents (on average). And finally, if we live an active lifestyle, we can get smarter and stay smart throughout our lives.
This charge is neither new nor original with Priestess of the Occult. The accusation hounded . from the founding of her Theosophical Society to the day of her demise -- and, when her ever-pungent pen was stilled in self-defence by death, the volley of imputation increased ten-fold. It has been alleged by an endless procession of ferocious critics that Madame Blavatsky was, among less gentle things, a French adventuress, a Russian spy, an embezzler, a blackmailer, a forger, a plagiarist, a drunkard, a dope fiend, a fraudulent Spiritist medium, a Satanist, an atheist, a Jesuit, and a bigamist.
The persistence of your resurrected chargers it appears to me is a greater problem itself than any supposed plagiarism. As a competent journalist yourself 656 you should know better!
Extraordinary claims demand extraordinary evidence for the obvious reason of balance. If I claim that it rained for ten minutes on my way to work last Tuesday, you would be justified in accepting that claim as true on the basis of my report. But if I claim that I was abducted by extraterrestrial aliens who whisked me to the far side of the moon and performed bizarre medical experiments on me, you would be justified in demanding more substantial evidence. The ordinary evidence of my testimony, while sufficient for ordinary claims, is not sufficient for extraordinary ones.
For example, suppose I want to get better at keeping track of baseball statistics or learning the names of new acquaintances. The far transfer approach goes like this: I sign up for a brain-training program, boost my working memory capacity and attentional control, and this improves my ability to track stats or remember new people. The big advantage of this approach is that, if successful, it gives broad benefits. If I really could increase my general cognitive ability, it would help me out in many facets of my life. The trouble is that far transfer is really hard to come by. That is what is shown by the data I described before.